Treatment of head louse infestation with 4% dimeticone lotion: randomised controlled equivalence trial
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Study appears to have been well planned and executed, using appropriate pharmaceutical and statistical methodologies. Dimeticone sounds like it is a pleasanter product than alternative treatments (malathion, phenothrin, permethrin, etc.), having less odour, being associated with fewer adverse events, and not being absorbed transdermally. It appears to work by a physical coating effect on the head lice, and so seems less likely to be toxic than preparations that work through their toxic effects.
The products differ sufficiently that subjects could not be blinded to which they were given; investigators assessing outcomes were blinded to the treatment. This was probably unavoidable and is unlikely to have significantly affected the outcome. Data included in the paper show very little difference between treatment groups, and very low dropout rates, which would tend to reduce the likelihood of bias.